Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Chinese Kinship Systems Essay -- China Chinese Kin Kinship Essays

Chinese Kinship Systems Works Cited Missing It would be impossible to disagree with the statement that â€Å"Chinese kinship is based on male predominance†. In fact this statement may even be under-emphasizing the control and absolute power that males wield across all levels of Chinese society. Of course, where their power initially comes from though, is through the family or termed differently the â€Å"jia†. It is this extended or ideal family that cultivates the consistent patrilineal form of control/descent and dictates that residence in said â€Å"jia† is primarily patrilocal. That being said, what I hope to be able to create over the following pages is a clearer understanding of the ideal (Chinese) system of control. This ideal system,based on the ideal of male predominance, is outlined impeccably in the writings of Baker, Watson and Xiaotong. There are also excellent examples of an ideal â€Å"jia† and its power structure in Wolf’s ethnography, â€Å"The House of Lim†. But Wolfà ¢â‚¬ s ethnography also outlines examples whereby the ideal system of dominance is not always put into practice or is just not as smooth running as the writings of the 3 former anthropologists would have you believe. It is my aim then, to include examples of a patriarchal system encountering problems and realities that are difficult to explain in an â€Å"ideal† sense.There is little doubt, according to Baker, that the first and foremost aspect to understanding Chinese families and society at large is the importance placed on male relationships and descent that is traced through a male line. In contrast, women in Chinese society were given little thought and even less power. They were to be used as reproducers of the male line and to aid in home/farm labour, apart from this; women had only small amounts of power and responsibility. In fact, the patriarchal system demanded that a wife’s only connection with her husband’s family be through the husband himself. He r future then, was caught up with his and her sons only, and she is expected â€Å"to see her husband’s interests as paramount in importance† (Baker, 1979).Yet, women and childbirth, were essential to the continuation of the patrilineal system, which started with the birth of a son or sons to any kinship system be they peasant or gentry class. It was considered vitally important in Chinese society, that a wife bare a son as soon as possible not only for the... ...cumstances would be in Chieng-cua’s position –is still alive and now has a son (Lim A-bok) who is contributing a full share to the family budget. Undoubtedly this ambiguity in structure of the family influences the attitudes of Lim A-pou and her son†.This ambiguity was the eventual death of the united Lim family. Walls were mounted, positions dissolved and property/wealth were divided up as equally as possible. It was not though, the death of the patrilineal system. Patrilocal residence would continue for all of the Lim (future) families, ancestral worship would also continue and male dominance and gender inequality would still reign supreme. In fact very little underneath the surface or socially would change at all, the family would remain a residential and economic unit composed primarily of males. And in order to reproduce itself it would still be forced to import women as brides, and dispose of females born into it by marrying them off to other families. F inally, it would continue to lay heavy stress on relationships through males, and tended to play down those through females, while there was an accompanying stress on the importance of men as opposed to women (Baker, 1979).

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Islam and the Muslims Essay

In September 2005 Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published twelve cartoons including a caricature of Muhammad in a bomb-shaped turban with an ignited fuse. This sparked a huge controversy that affected Muslims and Non-Muslims parts of the world. For the Muslims it was a portrayal of the prophet, Islam and the Muslims as terrorists. They feared that the cartoons might create an anti-Muslim attitude. The Jyllands-Posten apologized and the cartoonist explained that the cartoon was a protest of fundamentalist interpretations of Islam that terrorists use to base their acts on. In citing Free Speech, Jyllands-Posten had crossed the bounds of sensitivity to and respect for other people’s faith or religion. The issue should not be solely taken in the confines of the Danish system. Religion is universal and is held sacred by the believers. A bomb on Mohammad’s head is blasphemous. Given that a number of extremists and fundamentalists have used the teachings of Islam as shield of their terrorist acts, it would be most unfair to say that all Muslims behave and believe as they do. The Organization of the Islamic Conference refused to heed the clamor for death for the cartoonist even if Muslims felt that the cartoon was an insult to Muhammad. Those who thought the cartoons are non-issue as far as discrimination of Muslims is concerned is totally disgusting. Does making fun of all religious’ icons and symbolisms, exempting no one, a legal and moral excuse? Of course it does not. Doing it to all makes it all the more wrong. To the Muslims, Muhammad is revered. He is infallible. To treat him like a cartoon character to elicit fun or humor is not acceptable, it is contemptible. The Danish government’s response to the request for redress by certain Muslim sectors was passive. The courts of law where the prime minister, thru letter, referred them to were likewise evasive. Citing the wide scope of Freedom of Expression in Denmark, they refused to sanction Jyllands-Posten. The courts found no criminal act in the cartoons, for as long as the interpretation of Free Speech included public interest and respect for human rights. The courts were unilaterally in favor of the journalists and cartoonists. What justice left out and disregarded is the Muslim minority’s interest in particular and the Muslim’s human right to their religious beliefs, in general. The reaction or non-reaction of the Danish people and government in the controversy is uncharacteristic of a nation that has been ranked by the Reporters Without Borders as Top in Worldwide Press Freedom Index for 2005. There should be a certain degree of self-restraint in any freedom. It should seek to create, not to destroy. A subject like Religion must be treated with respect and tolerance. It should not be open to debates, opinions and critiques. World reaction to the controversy was predictable. The Muslim countries would be indignant. Denmark would suffer the backlash. Egypt helped diffused the situation in the Middle East. America looked the other way by accusing Syria and Iran of organizing protests and of buying Danish goods after a Muslim boycott. Judging by these reactions, the cartoon controversy was just the tip of the iceberg. Deep-seated political emotions are in the issue. The Muslim terrorists’ politically-motivated acts became religious issues in the cartoon controversy. That the terrorists were Muslims, Islam and Muhammad became the targets of caricaturing. Free Speech has taken a new form. It goes without limit, and anything and everything is fair game. What holds true for Denmark is made to be accepted by the Muslim minority in Denmark and the Muslim majority in the world. Religious figures, beliefs and practices must be left alone. They must not be used as side or main issues in any controversy. The only way to handle differences in religious beliefs is tolerance and respect. One must not be ridiculed and persecuted for his religious convictions. We must learn from the lessons of history. Terrorism must be dealt with a different but civilized option. Reference: Jyllands-Posten Muhhammad Cartoons Controvery, Wikipedia (20 February 2007),, date accessed: 23. Februrary 2007.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Become a Better Student With These English Study Tips

Learning a new language like English can be a challenge, but with regular study, it can be done. Classes are important, but so is disciplined practice. It can even be fun. Here are some guidelines to help you improve your reading and comprehension skills and become a better English student. Study Every Day Learning any new language is a time-consuming process, more than 300 hours by some estimates. Rather than try and cram a few hours of review once or twice a week, most experts say short, regular study sessions are more effective. As little as 30 minutes a day can help you improve your English skills over time. Keep Things Fresh Instead of focusing on one single task for the entire study session, try mixing things up. Study a little grammar, then do a short listening exercise, then perhaps read an article on the same topic. Dont do too much, 20 minutes on three different exercises is plenty. The variety will keep you engaged and make studying more fun. Read, Watch, and Listen Reading English-language newspapers and books, listening to music, or watching TV can also help you improve your written and verbal comprehension skills. By doing so repeatedly, youll begin to unconsciously absorb things like pronunciation, speech patterns, accents, and grammar. Keep pen and paper handy and write down words you read or hear that are unfamiliar. Then, do some research to learn what those new words mean. Use them the next time you are role-playing dialogue in class. Learn the Sounds Separately Non-native English speakers sometimes struggle with certain word pronunciations because they do not have similar sounds in their native tongue. Likewise, two words may be spelled very similarly, yet be pronounced quite different (for instance, tough and though), or you may encounter combinations of letters where one of them is silent (for example, the K in knife). Watch Out for Homophones Homophones are words that are pronounced the same way but are spelled differently and/or  have different meanings. There are a number of homophones in the English language, which is one of the reasons why it can so challenging to learn. Consider this sentence: Pack your clothes, then close the suitcase. Both clothes and close sound the same, but they are spelled differently and have different meanings. Practice Your Prepositions Even advanced students of English can struggle to learn prepositions, which are used to describe duration, position, direction, and relationships between objects. There are literally dozens of prepositions in the English language (some of the most common include of, on, and for) and few hard rules for when to use them. Instead, experts say, the best way to learn prepositions to memorize them and practice using them in sentences. Study lists such as this one are a good place to begin.   Play  Vocabulary and Grammar Games You can also improve your English skills by playing vocabulary games that are related to what youre studying in class. For example, if you are going to study English on topics that focus on vacations, take a moment to think about your last trip and what you did. Make a list of all the words you might use to describe your activities. You can play a similar game with grammar reviews. For example, if you are going to study conjugating verbs in the past tense, stop to think about what you did last weekend. Make a list of the verbs you use and review the various tenses. Dont be afraid to consult reference materials if you get stuck.  These two exercises will help you prepare for class by making you think critically about vocabulary and usage. Write It Down Repetition is key as youre learning English, and writing exercises are a great way to practice. Take 30 minutes at the end of class or study to write down what happened during your day. It doesnt matter whether you use a computer or pen and paper. By making a habit of writing, youll find your reading and comprehension skills improve over time. Once youre comfortable writing about your day, challenge yourself and have some fun with creative writing exercises. Choose a photo from a book or magazine and describe it in a short paragraph, or write a short story or poem about someone you know well. You can also practice your letter-writing skills. Youll have fun and become a better English student. You may even discover youve got a talent for writing.

Sunday, December 29, 2019

FAST FOOD COMPARABLES Comparing the supply chains of Dominos and pizza hut - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1534 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Marketing Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION This report hopes to give overview to the organisational supply chain of both Dominos and Pizza Hut; following a comparative analysis of the various methods used throughout the companies supply chains; assessing their viability in adding value, reducing risk and producing optimal effectiveness efficiency towards profiting. DOMINOS OVERVIEW Founded in 1965 by Tom Monaghan; Dominos is the second-largest pizza chain in the United States ( As it stands, 70 percent of its revenue comes from home delivery service and around 30 percent is over-the-counter sales. Dominos also has a leading international presence; with 8,533 franchise stores located in more than 60 international markets ( PRODUCTS Dominos is as a pizza delivery company, which operates in more than 60 countries worldwide. The companys key product and services include: Beverages, Branded Merchandise, Desserts, Pizzas, Side Dishes and Home Delivery. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "FAST FOOD COMPARABLES Comparing the supply chains of Dominos and pizza hut" essay for you Create order OPERATIONS The company operates in three segments: Domestic stores Supply chain International Domestic Stores Dominos utilizes its company-owned stores to test new products and technologies, which might then be passed onto franchises. The Domestic Stores also generate a grounded income for the company while being able to maintain some core ownership. SUPPLY CHAIN Dominos utilizes a vertically integrated system manufacturing and delivering most raw materials to the stores; this system allows Dominos to leverage the purchasing power of thousands of company-owned and franchised stores nationwide keeping food costs down; increasing speed of service and improving sales/customer service. International The international operation of Dominos consists of 3,469 franchised stores outside the United States. Dominos operates six supply chain centres internationally, which manufacture dough and distribute food and supplies. During 2007, the international revenues were estimated at $126.9 million. ( Procurement of raw materials The gathering of raw materials is an important part of the Dominos business model as they are the producers of their own dough. This allows Dominos to maintain a competitive edge by lowering their costs and also ensuring product quality. Raw materials are gathered from local third party suppliers and are delivered utilizing cold storage trucks to the dough manufacturing facilities. The dough is processed and then sent to the stores for the distribution and production ( Distribution The Dominos pizza dough is processed from the wheat through its own dough production plants, and then sent to the retail outlets again in refrigerated trucks (cold chain logistics) for assembly and sales. Product assembly Once the raw materials reach the store, product assembly takes place on a made to order basis. All non-valuable common products are manufactured into something, which holds perceived value with consumers (value adding). Through the in-store assembly line, toppings (vegetables, meat, sauce, cheese) are added to the prefabricated pizza base, it is cooked, and finally served to customers within a timely fashion. Methods of distribution to consumers (pizza) vary from in-store collection to delivery via courier. Overview of the supply chain (Diagram) :Sup chain.pdf PIZZA HUT OVERVIEW Pizza Hut specializes in the operation of pizza restaurants and takeaway huts. Pizza Hut is a subsidiary ofÂÂ  Yum! Brands, Inc. Its history dates back to 1958, when Frank and Dan Carney opened the first restaurant in Wichita, Kansas ( In 1973, Pizza Hut expanded into international markets. Restaurants were opened in Islington, London as well as in Japan and Canada. Pizza Hut operates in 92 countries throughout the world. As of 2009, Pizza Hut had 7,566 units in the US, and 5,715 units outside the US ( CORPORATE STRATEGY The overall corporate message is to satisfy our customer by offering them the best. Pizza Hut utilizes the C.H.A.M.P.S (Cleanliness, Hospitality, Accuracy, Maintenance, Product quality and Speed) model to administer its checks and balances within its supply chain ( Finally Pizza Hut incorporates the 3Fs (Fun, Friendly and Familiar) guideline when dealing with customer service and employee management ( PRODUCTS The Pizza Hut restaurant chain specializes in the sale of ready-to-eat pizza products. The chain sells a variety of pizzas with a variety of toppings. In some restaurants, Pizza Hut also offers breadsticks, pasta, salads and sandwiches ( Menu items outside of the US are generally similar to those offered in the US, although pizza toppings are often matched to local preferences and tastes. SUPPLY CHAIN- Back end supply chain The Supply chain of pizza hut consists of direct suppliers and indirect suppliers. The Direct suppliers of Pizza hut are: Pepsi Company Regional dough production companies (Pizza base) Secondary materials (meat, vegetables, sauces) come from a Dominos warehouse that purchases on a Commissary basis. The purchase is via indirect local suppliers: Local Meat markets Vegetable markets Sauce companies All of the direct material is requested daily based on a managers forecast; cold chain transport systems are used to deliver on a next day basis. Indirect materials are purchased by the warehouse and are delivered on a weekly basis ( Making the sale the product to the consumer Once the supplies from primary and secondary sources are stocked within the establishment, it is time to put all the pieces together and make the transfer of sale to the consumer. Pizza hut at this point takes orders from its walk-in and telephone/text/internet clientele. The assembly line style of taking orders and preparing food ensures efficient orchestration of this process. The process is meant to take no longer then 15 minutes from placing an order to serving the customer. Macintosh HD:Users:lindseyaliksanyan:Desktop:supply chart PH.pdf ( COMPARE, CONTRAST, AND ANALYSIS Looking at the Value Chain Inbound logistics/Outbound logistics receiving, warehousing, inventory orders Both Pizza Hut and Dominos had efficient and effective methods of transportation with an emphasis on maintaining product value (Hopkinson, 2011). There were slight differences Both companies utilized cold chain logistics to maintain product freshness, however Pizza Hut had more emphasis on maintaining indirect stock within its cold storage facilities. Having more stock in storage allows Pizza Hut to handle fluctuations in demand increasing their capacity, however it also increases costs and places the company at more risk of having a excess surplus and not enough demand IE: the Bullwhip Effect/Forrester Effect ( Stock is managed by the individual managers of both Pizza Hut and Dominos. Suppliers warehouses estimate the orders utilizing prior data. Both Pizza Hut and Dominos utilize the same/similar ordering methods with the only difference being in Dominos producing its own dough. Cold chain logistics For both companies, cold chain logistics, transportation, and storage-based services are utilized; this is a very important part within the supply chain. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range. Both Dominos and Pizza Hut utilize cold chain logistics to help extend and ensure theÂÂ  shelf lifeÂÂ  of their products, maintaining value within the supply chain ( Operations/Outbound logistics value-creating activities inputs-to-product. Pizza Hut, with their cold train transportation and storage facilities, has very little operational cost in comparison to Dominos. Dominos has a considerable operational cost and time due to their manufacturing facilities; however, this also decreases their overall, which also reduces their overall costs. Utilizing a vertically integrated supply chain system, Dominos produces their core products such as dough; utilizing raw materials ( wheat) they purchase in large quantities at lower costs. Dominos and Pizza Hut both show core integration between Outbound logistics, which is generally towards the end of the Value chain, and Operations as production relies on a model of made to order mass customization; the production of their core product is done on site consumers gain the feeling of customization which is in fact limited This adds considerable Value to the supply chain. Marketing/Sales/Service purchasing the product, advertising, pricing, etc. All marketing is done through corporate headquarters subdivided via territories IE: Europe, Americas, and China etc. Marketings for both companies are targeted to the tastes within each country, aligning their product line accordingly IE: Indian Spicy Pizza etc. This method integrated with made-to-order mass customizable products and friendly/fast service; increases the Value proposition: (Value = Benefits / Cost) directly (Hopkinson, 2011). Make-To-Order Model To reduce inventory and increase flexibility, both Dominos and Pizza Hut utilize Make-to-Order systems giving consumers the feeling of choice, whilst maintaining a set structure of offerings. Technology Development technology used to support the value chain Inventory stock analysis systems are integral at both chains in order to avoid demand mismatch, without these systems capacity could potentially be exceeded or underestimated. The solution both companies have taken is daily stock analysis carried out by the individual managers coupled with technological stock tracking systems (Christopher, 2005). Conclusion The function of a supply chain is measured in terms of their profit, average product fill rate, response time, and their capacity utilization. Both Pizza Hut and its competitor Dominos have a strong functioning supply chain. The only suggestion could be to reduce overhead, but no to the point that there is no room to grow or to handle fluctuations in demand. A Higher capacity utilization for both companies would decreases risk being that costs are reduced, but it would also hamper gain if future demand rose beyond the supply available.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Essay about The Role of the Church in the Renaissance

The Christian Church was absolutely instrumental in the art of the Renaissance. It was the driving force behind every inspiration; without the Church, there would have been no art. The Church was the only institution powerful enough to be able to support the commissions of all of the artwork, and it was the only institution, in which people had enough faith and devotion to spend so much of their time and money creating pieces that—although beautiful—were not necessities. The role of religion in art actually began during the Byzantine era. During this time, all artwork was religious in nature, and most of it was done in a consistently similar style so that figures from the Bible could be easily recognized by everyone and so that people†¦show more content†¦With so many diseases and such a high rate of death during the Renaissance, most people were superstitious and feared the wrath of God. As such, they devoted much of their time and money to Him, partly as honest methods of worship and partly as guarantees of salvation. Most large-scale architecture and paintings were religious in nature. Three religious works of art of this time period that best reflect the role of the Church are Giotto’s Arena Chapel, Duccio’s Maestà  , and Masaccio’s Trinity. Giotto is considered the first artist to be fully immersed in the Renaissance, and the man who truly brought the Renaissance to Florence. He learned from the skills and progress of the artists before him and took their work one step further. By this time, artists were viewed as skilled workers in society, whereas before they had been seen more as craftsmen. It was recognized that creative and intellectual skill were needed to create art, and artists became more educated, prosperous, and prominent in society, and this increased respect allowed the artists to develop their skills further and take greater pride in their work. One of Giotto’s most extensive proj ects was the Arena Chapel in Padua, which was a series of frescoes lining the walls and ceiling of the chapel. He worked on this for five years, from 1305 to 1310. Giotto was commissioned to paint this chapel by Scrovegni,Show MoreRelatedArt and Architecture in the Middle Ages and Renaissance Essay949 Words   |  4 PagesThe difference between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is most visible through art and architecture, demonstrated specifically through an emphasis on religion or classical antiquity, and humanity. During the Middle Ages, art was more religious because it had a very religious influence from the church having such great power in the community. When the Renaissance started, art became more focused on ancient Greece. The Greek influence was because scholars were broadly studying the revival of classicalRead MoreThe Renaissance And The Middle Ages1516 Words   |  7 Pageseducation. 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The Renaissance changed man’s view of man through the institutions of literature, astronomy, anatomy, andRead MoreThe Medici; Heroes of the Rennaissance988 Words   |  4 PagesThe Medici; Heroes of the Renaissance In the year 2004, PBS broadcasted the series, â€Å"Medici; Godfathers of the Renaissance†. This four-part documentary, in attempt to gain viewer interest, compared the Medici to the mobsters found in Francis Ford’s â€Å"The Godfather†. The relation of the Medici to Italian mobsters in the PBS Medici series is in no way accurate, for they were not villains of the renaissance, but heroes. The Medici were very connected with the church, and used their extensiveRead MoreThe Middle Ages And The Renaissance1137 Words   |  5 Pagesdiminutive or no developments took place. The church was the focus of attention, and rather than a logical outlook of the world, beliefs were concentrated around fallacies; on the other hand, the resurgence of education and innovations that followed the Middle Ages and was branded as the Renaissance. There have been disagreements as to whether the Renaissance is actually a isolated time period, or instead, just a great point of the Middle Ages. The Renaissance was unquestionably a distinct time periodRead MoreThe Renaissance Versus the Reformation1340 Words   |  6 PagesThe Renaissance versus the Reformation I feel, sometimes, as the Renaissance man must have felt in finding new riches at every point and in the certainty that unexplored areas of knowledge and experience await at every turnÂâ€"Polykarp Kusch. Two very critical periods in the history of western civilization involved the eras of the Renaissance and the Reformation. The renaissance evolved mainly in direct result to the medieval times where the people where obedient to authority. The reformationRead MoreHow The Renaissance Changed Man s View Of Man952 Words   |  4 PagesHow the renaissance changed man’s view of Man The renaissance changed Man’s view of the world and his place in it permanently. To know how it did just read this article it will talk about how artwork changed how the church lost its followers and much more.article. During the RenaissanceRenaissance, people of all cultural groups started to use their unique skills as a way of understanding innovative forms of politics, social reforms, and thinking. This new attitude started to form a

Friday, December 13, 2019

Optimism and Robinson Crusoe Free Essays

â€Å"A pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty† Winston Churchill From the time human were born, they have been facing up with difficulty, every time, everywhere, and never miss anyone. Our races have overcome and will overcome abundant problems, no matter how complex they were or they will be. And, very natural, it is the optimism that leads us from victory to victory, like Churchill had said; make us see the light, even the slightest, in the darkness. We will write a custom essay sample on Optimism and Robinson Crusoe or any similar topic only for you Order Now We always see the just how optimism has assisted we human, in term of both literature, in the novel Robinson Crusoe, and the history of medical science. Sometimes, being optimistic is the best thing people can do, which is shown clearly in Robinson Crusoe. The protagonist, Robinson, is lost on an island. He himself with manages to survive and even make his life on the island become more comfortable. He has never given up hopes or lost his optimism, always thinks that one day he will come back home. Not once does he succumb to the fate and be depressed like many other would be in that case. His optimism and his indefatigable make his hope finally be fulfilled; he is able get back to his country after 28 years on the island in the sea. If he was not sanguine about his life and just believed hopelessly that he would die in that island, he would not be able to success. This fact strongly substantiates how optimism can change our life even in the most trying circumstance. Provided that we keep being optimistic and try our best, we can overcome any problems in life. Another case when optimism plays an essential role is in medical science, where we day to day struggle with many deadly diseases, one of which is AIDS. AIDS, which has infected million of people and caused a lot of death, is one of our biggest problems in the 21st century. There was once it is believed that this disease is incapable of being cured but the scientist did not lose there will. They had made indefatigable effort to scrutinize AIDS and they are sanguine that one day in the future AIDS will be curable. Time passed by and this notion has been gradually proven. Today, many breakthroughs in science have shed light on AIDS, thought there are not medicine that can cure AIDS, it has been strongly believed that in the near future, when we fully understand AIDS, it will be curable. People, with optimism can overcome any things in our life; which has been proven through the history of our race. It is optimism which is the most important factor of any victories. How to cite Optimism and Robinson Crusoe, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Faust Essay Example For Students

Faust Essay The hero that never was In Faust,Johann Wolfgang von Goethe builds a dramatic poemaround the strengths and weaknesses of a man who under apersonalized definition of a hero fails miserably. A hero issomeone that humanity models themselves and their actionsafter, someone who can be revered by the masses as anindividual of great morality and strength, a man or womanthat never sacrifices his beliefs under adversity. Therefore,through his immoral actions and his unwillingness to respectothers rights and privileges, Faust is determined to be a manof un heroic proportions. It is seen early in the poem, thatFaust has very strong beliefs and a tight moral code that isdeeply rooted in his quest for knowledge. Sitting in his den,Faust describes his areas of instruction, I have, alas, studiedphilosophy, jurisprudence and medicine, too, and, worst ofall, theology with keen endeavor, through and through Itis obvious that through his studies he has valued deep andcritical thinking, however with the help of Mephisto, hewould disregard his values and pursue the pleasures of theflesh. Fausts impending downward spiral reveals the greedthat both Mephisto and Faust share. Mephistos greed isevident in the hope that he will overcome Fausts moralityand thus be victorious in his wager with God; also becausehe is the devil and that is what he does. For Faust, greedemerges because of his desire to attain physical pleasuresand therefore become whole in mind, body and spirit. Now Ill tell thee the graves to give us:Thou must begin to-morrowThe work of sorrow!The best place give to my mother,Then close at her side my brother,And me a little away,But not too very far, I pray!And here, on my right breast, my baby lay!Nobody else will lie beside me!Ah, within thine arms to hide me,That was a sweet and a gracious bliss,But no more, no more can I attain it!I would force myself on thee and constrain it,And it seems thou repellest my kiss:And yet tis thou, so good, so kind to see! If the grave is there,Death lying in wait, then come!From here to eternal rest:No further stepno, no!Thou goest away! O Henry, if I could go! But I dare not: theres no hope any more.Why should I fly? Theyll still my steps waylay!It is so wretched, forced to beg my living,And a bad conscience sharper misery giving!It is so wretched, to be strange, forsaken,And Id still be followed and taken! Be quick! Be quick!Save thy perishing child!Away! Follow the ridgeUp by the brook,Over the bridge,Into the wood,To the left, where the plank is placedIn the pool!Seize it in haste!Tis trying to rise,Tis struggling still!Save it! Save it! Nolet me go! Ill suffer no force!Grasp me not so murderously!Ive done, else, all things for the love of thee. Yes, the day comes,the last day breaks for me!My wedding day it was to be!Tell no one thou has been with Margaret!Woe for my garland! The chancesAre overtis all in vain!We shall meet once again,But not at the dances!The crowd is thronging, no word is spoken:The square belowAnd the streets overflow:The death-bell tolls, the wand is broken.I am seized, and bound, and deliveredShoved to the blockthey give the sign!Now over each neck has quiveredThe blade that is quivering over mine.Dumb lies the world like the grave!